Dr. Maria Montessori was a scientist and keen observer of children, constantly evaluating and quantifying her discoveries. Her theories continue to be tested today.
Dr. Maria Montessori was a scientist and keen observer, constantly evaluating and quantifying her discoveries. Her theories continue to be tested today.Dr. Maria Montessori was a scientist and keen observer, constantly evaluating and quantifying her discoveries. Her theories continue to be tested today.Dr. Maria Montessori was a scientist and keen observer, constantly evaluating and quantifying her discoveries. Her theories continue to be tested today.
Children happily and eagerly learn both life skills and academics, show care and compassion for their peers and their environment, develop refined and coordinated manual dexterity and fine motor coordination, and have an accurate sense of their own abilities, giving them confidence. We make these claims about Montessori, because we know from over a hundred years of hands-on classroom experience that it works.
But many other educational methods make the same claims. In Montessori, we're proud to be able to back ours up. Here you will find links to some of the most accurate and up-to-date research conducted on the benefits of Montessori education. This list is by no means exhaustive. If you know of a study that should be included here, please feel free to contact us with that information.
RESEARCH articles and publications
Shunned and Admired: Montessori, Self-Determination, and a Case for Radical School Reform
By Angeline Lillard, published in Educational Psychology Review, 2019
Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study
By Angeline Lillard, Megan Heise, and 4 other authors, published in Current Directions Psychological Science, 2018
The Evidence Base for Improving School Outcomes by Addressing the Whole Child and by Addressing Skills and Attitudes, Not Just Content
By Adele Diamond, published in Early Education and Development, 2: 780-793 (2010)
Evaluating Montessori Education
By Angeline Lillard and Nicole Else-Quest, published in Science magazine, Sept 2006
Montessori Public School Pre-K Programs and the School Readiness of Low-Income Black and Latino Children
By Arya Ansari and Adam Winsler, published in the Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 106, No. 4, 1066–1079, 2014
Outcomes for Students in a Montessori Program
By K. Dohrmann, published in the AMI-USA May 2003
A Comparison of Montessori and Traditional Middle Schools: Motivation, Quality of Experience and Social Context
By Kevin Rathunde, published in the NAMTA Journal, Summer 2003
Interventions Shown to Aid Executive Function Development in Children 4 to 12 Years Old
By Adele Diamond and K. Lee, published in the journal Science, August 2011
Preschool Children's Development in Classic Montessori, Supplemented Montessori, and Conventional Programs
By Angeline Lillard, published in the Journal of School Psychology, June 2006
High School Outcomes for Students in a Public Montessori Program
By Dohrmann, Nishida, Gartner, Lipsky, Grimm, published in the Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 2007
Test-Free System Gives Children a Better Start in Life
By Alexandra Frean, article in the London Times newspaper, Sept. 29, 2006
Using Montessori to Break the Cycle of Poverty
By Keith Whitescarver, article in Montessori International, Spring 2012
Optimal Developmental Outcomes: The Social, Moral, Cognitive and Emotional Dimensions of a Montessori Education
By Annette Haines, Kay Baker and David Kahn, published in the NAMTA Journal, Spring 2000
Language-Gap Study Bolsters a Push for Pre-K
By Motoko Rich, article in New York Times, Oct 2013
Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness in the Classroom: Applying Self-Determination Theory to Educational Practice
By C.P. Niemiec & R.M. Ryan, published in Theory and Research in Education in Education, 7(2): 133-144, July 2009
Biological and Psychology Benefits of Learning Cursive
Psychology Today, William Klemm Aug 2004
Studies In support of Early-Childhood Montessori
Overview on NAMTA website
Montessori: The Science Behind the Genius
By Angeline Lillard - link to her website with overview of book contents
Research Validates Montessori Approach to Teaching Language
By Sylvia Onesti-Richardson, published in Montessori Life, Summer 2004
Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori and Reggio-Emilia
By Carolyn Pope Edwards, University of Nebraska at Lincoln, published in Early Childhood Research and Practice
Constructivist and Montessorian Perspectives on Student Autonomy and Freedom
Eva Dobozy, University of Notre Dame
High School Outcomes for Students in a Public Montessori Program
Kathryn Rinskopf-Dorman et al, published in the Journal of Research in Childhood Education, Winter 2007
Montessori Research and Development
By Tara Peris, Article Insider - a brief introduction to the history and current state of Montessori research
For those wanting to learn more about Montessori, many great resources exist. Quality books and printed material, online sites, and DVDs offer accessible and practical information to understand Montessori and apply its principles.
Looking for a contemporary introduction to Montessori education? Consider these options:
Montessori and Early Childhood Education - Susan Feez
Montessori Learning in the 21st Century: A Guide for Parents and Teachers - M. Shannon Helfrich
Montessori Madness – Trevor Eisler
Montessori: A Modern Approach – Paula Polk Lillard
Montessori: The Science behind the Genius – Dr. Angeline Lillard
Montessori and Your Child: A Primer for Parents – Terry Malloy
Montessori Today - Paula Polk Lillard
Understanding Montessori – Maren Schmidt
Writings by Maria Montessori
Maria Montessori wrote prolifically throughout her life. Listed below are many of her available translated works in English.
The 1946 London Lectures
The Absorbent Mind
Advanced Montessori Method 1
Advanced Montessori Method 2
Basic Ideas of Montessori’s Educational Theory
California Lectures of Maria Montessori, 1915
The Child in the Family
The Child, Society and the World
Cosmic Education (pamphlet by Mario Montessori)
Creative Development in the Child, Vol 1
Creative Development in the Child, Vol 2
The Discovery of the Child
Education and Peace
Education for a New World
Education for Human Development
The Formation of Man
The Four Planes of Education (pamphlet by Mario Montessori)
From Childhood to Adolescence
The Secret of Childhood
To Educate the Human Potential
What You Should Know About Your Child
Other Noteworthy Books
The list of books below includes noteworthy or practical texts in the Montessori literature:
At Home with Montessori – Patricia Oriti
Children Who are Not Yet Peaceful - Donna Bryant Goertz
Classroom Management: The Art of Normalization - Ginni Sackett
In a Montessori Home (book and DVD) – Sarah Moudry
Let Out the Sunshine – Regina Barnett
Maria Montessori: Her Life and Work – E.M. Standing
Montessori Play and Learn – Lesley Britton
A Sharp Call to the Public Conscience: Maria Montessori and the Social Party of the Child - Ginni Sackett
Understanding the Human Being – Dr. Silvana Montanaro
Nurturing the Spirit – Aline Wolf
100 Child Development Tips – Heather Pederson (pamphet)
The Outdoor Classroom – Mary Boden
Tao of Montessori: Reflections on Compassionate Teaching - Catherine McTamaney
Tending the Light - John Snyder
Montessori ONLINE Journals
AMI Digital - houses a global collection of publications available to members
The NAMTA Journal - this professional journal is published 3 times a year and is archived through the scholarly database ERIC
NAMTA Montessori Archive - a subscription based, indexed collection of over 50 Montessori periodicals
Montessori Public - a digital and print communications and advocacy platform bringing Montessori into the public conversation
Public School Montessorian - a now archived quarterly independent newspaper covering a broad range of Montessori educational topics and issues
Montessori Associations and Organizations
Association Montessori Internationale (AMI) – founded by Maria Montessori in 1929 and with teacher training offered in 35 countries around the world.
AMI-USA – Branch office of AMI, located in Rochester, New York.
North American Montessori Teacher’s Association (NAMTA) – An affiliate organization of AMI, open to parents, teachers, and anyone else interested in Montessori education.
Montessori Administrators Association – An affiliate organization of AMI to support administrators of Montessori schools.
AMI Elementary Alumni Association (EAA) – An affiliate organization of AMI that provides a supportive community for the exchange of ideas and promotes the principles of Montessori education
Oregon Montessori Association (OMA) – Grassroots organization committed to advancing Montessori throughout Oregon and the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest Montessori Association (PNMA) - A non-profit professional organization, comprised of teachers, interns, administrators, and schools promoting excellence and growth in Montessori education across the Pacific Northwest
Montessori Accreditation Council for Teacher Education (MACTE) – An autonomous, international, non-profit postsecondary accrediting agency for Montessori teacher education programs and institutions.
Montessori for Social Justice - A non-profit organization supporting the creation of sustainable learning environments that dismantle systems of oppression, amplify voices of the Global Majority, and cultivate partnerships to liberate the human potential.
National Center for Montessori in the Public Sector (NCMPS) - An independent non-profit organization whose mission is to help public schools deliver high-quality, personalized education through Montessori.
The Montessori materials are designed to be precise, well-constructed and durable. The following websites feature Montessori materials for all levels of Montessori education:
Nienhuis Montessori – Montessori material manufacturer, in operation since 1929.
Juliana Group – Savannah, GA-based distributor of Gonzagareddi materials, crafted in Italy since 1911.
Matsumoto Kagaku – Japan-based manufacturer of Montessori materials
Other material suppliers:
Montessori Services – supplier of items to prepare the child’s environment